By Dr. Rafat Amari
Analysis of the Group who Followed Mohammed Before his Accord With the Tribes of Oas and Khazraj
failed to convince the citizens of
Jandal, a man who became Muslim, joined Abu Basir, and forced every man who
embraced Islam to join Abu Basir, till they became a gang. Every time they
heard of a caravan coming out of
of the early followers of Mohammed were from a group called Saalik. They envied
the people of
also believed in free sex. That's why they attacked houses in
concerning the followers of Mohammed at
One of the Arabian leaders told Mohammed, “those who followed you are the thieves who steal the pilgrims.”[vi] Those thiefs followed Mohammed without having repented from their crimes. On the contrary, in following Mohammed they found a false “legalization” of committing major crimes, and of spoiling the possessions of others (and their females) under the excuse of religion.
When Mohammed Failed to Spread his Religion Through convincing People, he Changed Strategy, Offering a Filthy Bargain
When Mohammed saw that only groups like Saaliks would follow him, he changed strategy by trying to make a concession to the Arabian tribes. He visited their cities and settlements with a strange offer. The tribes had to believe that Mohammed was the prophet of Allah, and they had to be committed to fight with Mohammed and his group to impose Islam over every Arabian tribe. In return, Mohammed would guarantee that the children of the tribes they conquered would become their slaves, and that the women and daughters of the conquered tribes would be at their disposal. Also, money and possessions would go to the victors.
It is interesting that the Arabian tribes refused Mohammed's offer. They considered it to be shameful to wage wars against other tribes in order to take their wives as concubines and their children as slaves. Among the tribes which Mohammed visited was a tribe called Baker Bin Wael. Mohammed's message to them was reported by the biographers of his time. One biographer wrote:
You exalt Allah over you until you occupy their houses, enjoy their wives and make their children your slaves. The only condition is that you bless Allah thirty times and laude him thirty - three times and say “Allah is great” thirty - three times."[vii]
The core of Mohammed's offer was that the victors would take the women and houses and make the children their slaves. Mohammed did not announce a doctrine to follow, but presented a despicable bargain wrapped in religious words. Thankfully, Mohammed's offer was refused by the Baker tribe.
The Moment in Which the Devils Showed up to Back Mohammed
story is told that one day Mohammed went to the tribe of Thaqif in the city of
The Jinn were also called devils in the Arabian language at the time of Mohammed. Al-Jaheth, an ancient Arabian writer, told about the beliefs of the Arabians at the time of Mohammed. He said they described devils and they called them “Jinn-devils,” “devils,” or just “Jinn.”[ix] Jarir, a famous Arabian poet, says in one of his poems that he has a devil who makes incantations, and this devil was of the Jinn.[x] Al-Tabari expresses the same thought that Satan was one of the Jinn, and chief of them.[xi]
The Qur‘an also treats the Jinn as devils. In Surah18, called al-Kahef, verse 50, the Qur'an says that Satan was one of the Jinn. In the books that narrate the life of Mohammed, Satan is described as “the father of the Jinn”[xii]. We can only conclude that if Satan is chief of the Jinn, it's clear that the Jinn are, indeed, devils.
And why, if Allah intended to make Muslims of the devils, would he strike their heads with stars or meteorites while they were spying and listening to the Qur'an as Gabriel was descending through the “ceiling of heaven”? Allah should have been happy for them to hear the Qur'an while they were up on the ceiling of heaven. They could have become Muslims there. Striking them on their heads with meteorites makes no sense.
not Mohammed known to the devils every day while he was reciting verses of the
The Jinn-devils immediately began authoring a chapter in the Qur'an equal in language to the rest of the Qur’an, attacking the Sonship of Christ and boasting to be righteous. Finally, the Qur'an would have us believe that the Jinn, immediately after hearing the Qur'an, became authors of one of its chapters. Jinn are transformed in just one moment to be authoritative authors like Allah. The chapter of Jinn is the chapter of devils. In it they attack Jesus Christ as the Son of God. They represent the inspiration and authority of the Qur‘an, establishing doctrine. In the Surah attacking the Sonship of Christ, they claim some of the devils are righteous.
To justify the absence of miracles in his claims, Mohammed said the Arabic language of the Qur'an was a sign of his prophetic role. Mohammed claimed the Qur'an was given to him in a high Arabic grammatical form which even the Jinn couldn't imitate. However, the style of the devils' chapter is the same Arabic style as the rest of the Qur'an.
People are deceived because they do not read the Bible, where they can learn about the tricks of the devil.
According to the Bible, the Devil is a liar and never will be righteous. He was removed from the presence of God forever. Remember, also, that the Devil can appear to be religious in order to deceive people without true Biblical knowledge, but he will never be a creature who loves God or is transformed into something righteous, as the devils claimed in the Qur'an’s chapter of the Jinn. In the Book of the Revelation, the Bible warns about the “depths of the devil,” through which he tries to deceive people who do not study the Bible. Only the Bible, the true Word of God, exposes the ways of Satan and provides those who study it with the means to deal with the tricks of the Devil. The more we study the claims of Islam, the more we see how gullible the followers are expected to be.
The Reputation of Mohammed was Bound With the bad Reputation of the Group who Followed him at Mecca
relationship of Mohammed with the group who followed him, which was known in
making raids and pirating the caravans, and raping the women and girls at
Al-Halabi, a biographer of Mohammed, reports on the reaction of the Arabian tribes toward Mohammed's offer to them to embrace Islam. If they would do this, Mohammed guaranteed to give them the children of the Arabian tribes they conquered as slaves and their wives and daughters as concubines. Al-Halabi wrote:
No one has accepted him among those tribes, and they said, “The people of the man know better about him. Do you think a man can be fitting to us, after he corrupted his people?”[xiii]
other words, the rejection of Mohammed by the Arabian tribes was based on the
principle that Mohammed claimed to be a religious reformer, yet he abused and
corrupted his people. I personally believe their view was based on the fact
that Mohammed was allied with a certain group at
The Nature of the two Tribes Which Accepted the Offer of Mohammed
day a group of two savage tribes from
the city of
Mohammed's offer was refused by other Arabian tribes, it was viewed by Oas and
Khazraj, the two tribes who met with Mohammed at
Mohammed besieged the second Jewish tribe, Beni Kharithah, and prohibited food
and water from reaching them until they were compelled to yield to his judgment.
Mohammed claimed the judgment of Allah was on them. All the males over ten
years of age were killed, and the males under ten became slaves. The houses,
and the females of the tribe, were divided and given to Mohammed‘s followers,
Oas and Khazraj, and to the Muslims who followed him from Mecca. When it came
to killing the males over ten years of age, Mohammed ordered trenches to be
dug. The males were fettered and brought in groups to the trenches, where they
were beheaded and buried. He then divided the females and gave them as
concubines to the members of the two tribes, Oas and Khazraj, and to his
followers who emigrated to
With the money obtained from selling the older women and the children as slaves, he built an army and equipped them with body armor and shields. Now he was prepared to wage war against other Arabian cities and to subdue them.
The Filthy Tune of Mohammed Found the fit String Through Which Mohammed Will be Heard by force by the Rest of the Arabians
happened in the
Mohammed had played on this filthy string, the only string that
allowed him to play his filthy tune, through which he would be heard in
Mohammed Proposes Killing the Creditor and Helper so as to get rid of the Debts and Then to Take the Spoil
Before the attack on the Jewish tribes, there had been peace in the city. Living side by side with Oas and Khazraj, the Jewish tribes had loaned them abundant amounts of money through a peaceful alliance. But Mohammed had other ideas. He considered the possibility of killing these two rich Jewish tribes and taking all their money. This language of getting rid of the two Jewish tribes, who were helping the Oas and Khazraj and giving them continuous loans, created greediness and covetousness in the Oas and Khazraj to betray the alliance with the rest of inhabitants of their city. Thus, they could get rid of their creditors and spoil their riches, houses, and females, and enslave their children.
Mohammed initiated this strategy when he met with a group of eight people from the tribe of Khazraj. Authoritative Islamic books which narrate his life quote Mohammed as saying:
“who are you?” They said, “a group of Khazraj,” and he said, “are you those who are in alliance with the Jews of Medina, Kharithah and Nather?” (Mohammed knew they were in alliance to defend each other against attacks from the outside, and to refrain from attacking each other.) They said, “yes” and he said, “Why not sit down so I may talk to you?,” They said, “Yes.”[xv]
We can only speculate on the rest of the conversation Mohammed had with this group, but it must have been similar to the tribe of Wael Bin Baker which we examined earlier. They were to bless the name of Allah thirty three times and, in return, they would have the females and money of others, and they would enslave the children. This became the foundation of Mohammed‘s message to the Arabian tribes after he failed to make proselytes of them by convincing them of his religious claims. Why would we expect his message to Oas and Khazraj to be any different? Mohammed was simply searching for a tribe to help him wage war against the Arabians in order to subjugate them to himself as their prophet?
Mohammed presented the same message to each group he met, not as a religious, peaceful message, but as a proposal to put an end to security in the city, and allow for the ability to trample human rights. He presented an opportunity for greediness and covetousness, based on betraying one's neighbor and conspiring against him in order to kill him. The message of Mohammed cancelled covenants and pledges between neighbors, destroying the principles of security which had been followed for hundreds of years. Each neighbor became a victim, and his wealth and family members became the possessions of those who accepted the schemes of Mohammed.
Is Mohammed the Right Example to Follow?
evaluating a philosophy or a creed, we can't ignore how the founder behaved.
What were the results of his actions in his own time? The founder's example
will always be the paradigm, or model, which generations to come who embraced
his teachings will use to examine and imitate his teachings. Violent people in
radical Islam have found an example in their founder and leader, Mohammed. It
is little wonder that the Islamic radicalism in
What would have happened if one quarter of the world had embraced the Nazism of Hitler? Would that exempt us from evaluating the acts of Hitler, exposing his atrocities, and opposing the danger of Nazism to the human society? I advise my Muslim friends to ponder this. God established goodness, and bestowed the privilege of being a family to mankind. Would God deprive a man of that by killing the man and giving his wife and daughters to another religious group to be their concubines and slaves?
I urge you to compare the life of Jesus Christ to that of Mohammed. Jesus went to the cross for you. He was attacked, beaten and crucified, but “he opened not his mouth.” There was “no guile found in him.” Jesus never waged war, never violated the rights of those around him, nor incited his followers to rape and enslave others. Jesus even urged his followers to feed their enemies and do good to those who despitefully used them. Isn't there a difference?
What was Perceived from the Representatives of the two Tribes was not a Religion but a Specific Plan
Although his offer was rejected by the other Arabian tribes, it appealed to the members of the two most cruel tribes in the history of Jahiliyah, or pre-Islamic times. In Mohammed’s offer, the eight representatives of these two tribes saw a way for tribe members to get rich quick, and they saw a large pool of women to fulfill their expectations for frivolity and sex. In addition, they saw a way to rid themselves of the debts they owed their neighbors. They would inherit their neighbor’s gold, houses and land, and they would benefit financially from making slaves of the children and selling them in the markets. And, all this was to be done under the cover of religiosity.
representatives of these two tribes saw that Mohammed’s offer was not a
religion, but a specific plan to conquer
They promised to convey Mohammed’s message to the two tribes – which consisted in the acceptance of the leadership of Mohammed for what he promised, which amounted to treason of their neighbors, depriving them of their money, wives and daughters, and enslaving their children. After talking to Mohammed, the eight representatives returned to their city, al-Medina, with Mohammed’s demonic plan, which they conveyed to the two tribes. In their actions, we see a willingness to convey Mohammed’s genocidal message. We see them expressing their preference to follow Mohammed over their own tribal leadership, and to fulfill the plan Mohammed displayed. Ibn Hisham, Mohammed's biographer, quotes their own words: “May they be gathered to you. We will come to them and call them to your order. If they agree to it, nobody is preferred over you.” Another of Mohammed’s biographers, al-Halabi, agrees with Ibn Hisham when he tells us: “May they are gathered under you. If their words will be united toward you and they follow you, nobody is preferred over you.”[xvi]
We can clearly see that the matter is not of a religious nature, accepted individually, but it’s a commitment to a plan whose subject was well known, since Mohammed had already presented it to the rest of the tribes.
The treaty between Mohammed and the two tribes was called “the treaty of Akaba.” Mohammed gained the advantage when the two tribes accepted his bait, by making them ecome under his bondage and enslavement.
Mohammed’s program spread through the
two tribes. After a short time, they sent a delegation of twelve people to him
who spoke officially for the tribes. They made a commitment to defend Mohammed
with the same vigor with which they would defend their own children. They
accepted that Mohammed would emigrate to them, indicating that the tribes had
accepted his program, which consisted of the following: that Mohammed would
take the leadership of the two tribes and would begin the piracy which he
previously proposed, which would guarantee their dominance over
This treaty was called “the treaty of Akaba.” Mohammed’s biographers said he told the representatives of the two tribes:
pledge allegiance with the
condition that you defend me as you defend your wives and sons.” So they
allegiance to Mohammed under these terms, and they accepted that he would
Mohammed added more conditions. He must have:
“their obedience in times of perspicuity as well as in troublesome and difficult times,” said one of his biographers. “They must be loyal to him in the days that are encouraging and in the days of hated events. They shall not contend with him and his command.”[xvii]
Ibadah Bin al-Samet عبادة بن الصامت was one of the leaders selected to represent the two tribes before Mohammed. He said:
“We pledged allegiance to Mohammed to completely listen to him and obey him, in our easy, normal times as well as in our difficult times, when the days were in our favor and when the days were not in our favor.”[xviii]
This means they were to be obedient to Mohammed in all circumstances, whether they liked it or hated it. Mohammed had fettered them in severe bondage. They fell into his trap and took the bait, anticipating free sex, and the money and possessions which would be theirs.
Mohammed expected blind obedience, in which they relinquished their right to object to his actions or to hold differing opinions, no matter how much they hated it. Mohammed built his scheme on their desire to enjoy the women they conquered, and experience a continuous life of extravagance, wantonness and licentiousness, even if it meant they had to sacrifice their own liberty. Mohammed put them in the worst kind of bondage ever imposed on mankind. Even today Muslims are subjected to the same bondage. They are not free to choose their own faith, and they face death if they doubt Mohammed’s claims or abandon him.
The followers of Mohammed have become human tools whom he humiliated in order to increase his authority and extend his domain. He had no regard for them, so he pushed them into suicidal wars. Compare what Mohammed did to the behavior of Jesus Christ who, instead of fleecing his followers, offered himself as a ransom for them.
Mohammed placed his followers in bondage, to the extent that he threatened to excommunicate anyone who would speak with loud voice before him. Mohammed turned his face away from such a person. He would not respond to his salutes, and avoided any conversation with him. Then Mohammed ordered his followers to treat the excommunicated person in the same manner, and thus separate him from his own household. Mohammed separated him from his wife, prohibiting his wife to serve her husband or to remain in the home with him. He did this in order to humiliate the person. After this, Mohammed used to claim that the repentance of such an excommunicated person had been announced to Mohammed from Allah. Mohammed used to claim such things after he had humiliated the excommunicated person and changed him into a lowly humiliated slave.
When we study the names of the early
representatives who pledged themselves to Mohammed, we discover that most of
them were killed in the piracy expeditions which Mohammed waged against
villages, cities and tribes in
Mohammed’s Selfish Behavior in Pushing People to Suicidal Wars for his own Exaltation, in Contrast to the Loving and Caring Behavior of Christ
Mohammed’s behavior stands in stark contrast to the behavior of Christ, who was not concerned about His own personal suffering, but rather kept from exposing his disciples to the harmful treatment of others.
We see this
in the Gospels. For example, in John 18:4-10, the rulers of the Jews came with
their soldiers to arrest Jesus while He was with His disciples in
Jesus therefore, knowing all the things that would come upon Him, went forward and said to them, “Whom are you seeking?” They answered Him, “Jesus of Nazareth.” And Jesus said to them, “I am He.”... Now when He said to them, “I am He,” they drew back and fell to the ground.
Then He asked them again, “Whom are you seeking?” And they said, “Jesus of Nazareth.” To which Jesus answered, “I have told you that I am he. Therefore, if you seek me, let these go their way,” that the saying might be fulfilled which he spoke, “Of those whom you gave me I have lost none.”
Jesus didn’t want to forfeit any of His disciples. Instead, He gave Himself as a ransom for their salvation and for the rest of the world.
On the other hand, Mohammed saw those who followed him (and were deceived by his bait) as tools without value or importance, as firewood to be burnt only to facilitate Mohammed’s desire to gain dominion over the Arabian tribes. Mohammed offered nothing to his generation except a horrible example, pushing people to suicidal wars for his own exaltation. He made devious bargains to fulfill his plans. How can he possibly be of spiritual benefit to either his own generation or to subsequent generations?
There is no one worthy of being the Savior other than Jesus Christ, who proved to be a loving leader. Being in the form of God, He didn’t consider it robbery to be equal with the Father in the Godhead, but He made Himself of no reputation, taking on Himself the form of a servant in the likeness of a man. Appearing as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross. In contrast to Mohammed, Jesus is a true leader, as well as the Savior of the soul. His example of humility and unselfish love need to be followed today. God the Father has selected no leader other than Jesus, the one who reflects God's humbleness in human form, and God's love. He is the One who gives immediate salvation for every one who asks Him by faith.
Are you following God’s appointed leader, or have you fallen for the deception so cleverly perpetrated many years ago? If you do not follow Jesus, I urge you to seriously consider His life and His teachings. It is a matter of eternal consequence.
The most vicious and ferocious two tribes in
Ibn Maktum, also called Amru, was a cousin of Khadijah, who was Mohammed’s first wife. Mohammed sent him to Oas and Khazraj.[xix]
It is difficult for us to understand how the
two tribes were ready to accept Mohammed as their boss and leader after only eight of
them met with Mohammed for
only a few minutes. Further, they agreed to host a group of outlaws at
They had no
understanding of what Islam was all about, since only eight people met with
Mohammed, and they met with him for only a few minutes. This couldn’t possibly
allow enough time for them to understand any of the religious claims of
Mohammed. But it did give them enough time to understand Mohammed’s plan, which
became an obvious slogan to everyone who visited the area around
Finally, Mohammed found that the tribes of Oas and Khazraj were ready to respond to the filthy satanic tune which he played for them. When Mohammed noticed that the poison which he had placed in their minds had spread to the tribal leadership, he imposed cruel conditions on them, and required a high and a costly price from them which was to pledge their blind obedience to him. We can see this in the terms of the treaty Mohammed had with them. It read that they pledged
Their obedience in times of perspicuity, as well as in troublesome and difficult times. In the days that are encouraging and in the hated events. And that they shall not contend with him and his command.[xx]
Even though they knew what fate awaited them, the two tribes agreed to be subject to him on those conditions. They did it in order to obtain other conditions which had greater appeal to them.
The treaty was known for its strict terms. No other religious man in history was ever called by a group of people to be recognized as reformer in their midst, without first having lived among them for many years in order to gain their confidence and persuade them that his promise was genuine. But here we find two tribes willing to go along with eight of their members who had an accidental and shallow meeting with Mohammed. The entire membership of the tribes was ready to make Mohammed the master of their souls in severe blind obedience.
of the treaty made these aggressive tribes undergo complete subjection? What made them imprison their souls under the
bondage of a man without having the opportunity to object to what he decided?
The thing that made them totally surrender to Mohammed was what he promised
them – the spoils of war: wives, daughters, lands and houses. Therefore, the
quick, unlawful and illicit riches led frivolous leaders to submit to cruel shame
and humiliation. Their wills became completely enslaved to the point where
there was no freedom of thought, and no objection to whatever Mohammed imposed on them. They
were unable to express themselves
or make the slightest suggestion. This was, perhaps, the worst humiliation ever
imposed on a people. This is the same kind of covenant the Devil makes with
human beings today. He places the belt of authority tightly around his victims,
fettering their minds and their personalities. He steals their wills and their
personal liberty. He insists that everything be yielded to him and to his
representatives. Even today, each person on whom Mohammed imposes his ideas
suffers from the same consequence. Objection to Mohammed’s thoughts are not
acceptable. The Muslim who thinks independently faces the maximum punishment,
which is death. This is true today in any Muslim country. Muslims who dare
object to the ideas of Mohammed, the diviner of
The immediate adoption of Islam by the two tribes was made by the tribal chiefs. This was to expedite the application by Mohammed of the rest of the articles and terms of the treaty.
The entrance of the two tribes into
Islam was not through personal or individual religious persuasion or personal
conviction of the people, but was made solely on the decision of the tribal
chiefs. Mohammed sent Mesab Bin Amir with the tribal leaders as part of the
treaty. Mesab encouraged the tribal chiefs to bring the two tribes into Islam
before Mohammed’s arrival at
the process of indoctrinating the chiefs into Islam and then quickly bringing
their members into the religion came without preparation, teaching, or taking
into consideration anyone’s point of view, or any individual’s decision.
Accepting Islam was required as part of the accepted plan which Mohammed
displayed to their representatives who met with him at
When Saad stood to speak to them, he said, “Sons of Abed al-Ashhal [al-Ashhal was the head from whom the tribe descended], how did you see my order to you?” They answered, “You are our lord, and you have the best opinion among us, and your order is blessed.” He then said, “What you say to your wives is illegal and illicit until you believe in Allah and his prophet.” After he said this, none of the members of the tribe of Beni Abdel Shahal remained without becoming Muslim that evening. All the men and women became Muslims on the same day.[xxii]
We see that the people themselves were
not persuaded by the religion of Mohammed.
Instead, it was a political move in the hands of the tribal chiefs to
expedite the program promised by Mohammed. The process of accepting Islam was
completed without delay or desire to understand what Islam really was. The
leaders saw that quickly imposing Islam on tribal members would guarantee the
acceptance of the terms of Mohammed’s accord. They did this in order to achieve
their goals in becoming the truly rich people of
earlier, a short time after Mohammed came to the
This same example, set by Mohammed, has been followed by Muslims throughout history. Islam has spread by imposing itself on the masses who never understood what the religion was all about.
The ultimate goal of the Qur'an is to force the world to embrace Islam through humiliation and the sword, and to exterminate those who do not accept Islam.
After Mohammed died, the very tribes on which Mohammed imposed Islam by force, withdraw from Islam and expressed the desire of everyone to choose his or her own faith. But their rebellion did not last for long. Abu Baker, the first Caliph of Mohammed, waged wars against the rebelling tribes, subduing them to Islam and killing those who refused to embrace this religion. He did this in accordance with the Qur’an which orders all Muslims to fight all those who don’t believe in Mohammed’s claims. The Qur’an incites Muslims to fight “unbelievers” or “infidels.” In Surah 8:39, the Qur’an says: “fight them on, until there is no seduction, until this religion is only the religion of Allah.” Another verse, Surah 9:12, says: “fight the chiefs of infidelity that they may be exterminated.” And in Surah 9:36 we read that Muslims are to “fight the infidel all.” It is clear from the study of these, and many other verses of the Qur’an, that the requirement of the Qur’an is to fight all non-Muslims. If they don’t accept Islam, Allah gladly wants them to be exterminated, because the goal of Jihad, or holy war, is to make the whole world embrace one religion, Islam.
of Mohammed put these verses into practice. After they dealt with backsliders
in Arabia, they waged many wars in the
Fight those who believe not in Allah ... from the people of the book [he meant the Christians and Jews] until they pay the Jizyah [the tribute] by their hands, humiliated.
According to Qur’an, the tribute paid by Christians and Jews included personal humiliation. For example, Muslims applied this teaching during the 7th century A.D. in Christian countries by spitting in the faces of those who paid the tribute but refused to become Muslims. Often they beat them while they were paying the tribute. They had no tolerance for either Christians or Jews. Rather than kill them immediately, Muslims imposed heavy tributes on them, always paid with some kind of humiliation. This was intended to put pressure on non-Muslims so that most of them would be compelled to yield to Islam.
of most Muslims in the
Christ respects the individual freedom to choose to believe in Him, in contrast with Mohammed's behavior which forcefully imposed his creed, killing the one who doubted it.
Christianity, led by Jesus Christ, stands in stark contrast to the Islam of Mohammed. Mohammed used every illicit and abusive way he could to force people to consider him as a prophet. Mohammed carried force to such an extent that he exterminated those who refused to believe in him. On the other hand, we find Jesus refusing to be Lord over people who don’t come to him by their own choice and refuse to place their faith in His true identity as God incarnate. The Bible records that Jesus refused the Jews who wanted Him to be their king after he performed a creative miracle and fed 5,000 people in the desert. He multiplied the five loaves and two fish. Jesus wasn’t looking to be a king over people who didn’t recognize his identity through faith. He didn’t want to dominate people who were attracted to personal interests, rather than building a loving relationship with Him by acknowledging His perfection, perfect love and holiness as God.
Jesus never denounced anyone who doubted His divine identity. Do you remember Thomas who doubted Jesus’ resurrection, and declared that he would not believe unless he saw the prints of the nails in His hands and put his fingers into them and into Jesus’ sword-pierced side? Jesus didn’t fight against Thomas, but He appeared to Thomas and allowed him to trace the prints of the wounds in his hands and side. Because Jesus allowed the facts to create faith, Thomas was able to say to Jesus, “My Lord and my God.” While Mohammed used the sword and imposed heavy tribute to enforce untruthful claims upon people who were not convinced of them nor believed in him, Christianity simply presents the facts, enabling the soul to recognize its true Creator and God.
My friend, if you are a follower of Islam, living under the control of its false claims, you need to think for yourself. Compare the claims of Jesus Christ to what you believe and make an educated choice. It’s worth anything it may take to break away from the delusion of Islam to follow Christ.
PAGAN RITUALS FROM TWO
TRIBES LIVING IN
Did you ever wonder why Muslims worship on Friday, while Jews
worship on Saturday and Christians worship on Sunday? The answer may surprise
you. When Mohammed emigrated to
The Ansar, a title for the two tribes, said, “There is a day for the Jews to meet every seven days, and for the Christians there is also a weekly day. So, let us make a day in which we meet and call on the name of Allah and pray.” So they made it the day of Urubah.[xxiii]
They chose the same pagan day they which celebrated before they
became Muslims. It was the day they worshipped idols. They sent for
Mohammed before he emigrated to
or al-Jummah as it is called in Arabic, was named by
Kaab Bin Luay, one of the two tribal chiefs. He called the day Jummah, which in
Arabic means “meeting” or “gathering.” For pagan Arabians, Friday is
called Urubah, which means “mercy.” It was
their pagan weekly feast when the two tribes met on Friday before the
emigration of Mohammed to
Mohammed Followed the Rituals of the two Tribes When They Contradicted his Rituals
The two tribes not only imposed their pagan weekly day of worship
on Mohammed, but they dictated the direction which they were to face when they
prayed. In Arabic they called it “Khublah.” Before his alliance with the two
tribes, Oas and Khazraj, Mohammed used to face
We made a pilgrimage with our people who were pagan. Our chief,
Albraa Bin Maarur, was with us. When we left
Here we find before his alliance with Oas and Khazraj, that, in
Mohammed’s mind, the Kaabah was not a building that was superior to the
Another conclusion we draw
from this incident is that deference was given to the pagan rituals of Oas and
Khazraj of Medina. If they differed from Mohammed’s rituals, they took
precedence. We see the two tribal chiefs were indifferent to what Mohammed
practiced. As we saw in the case of Albraa Bin Maarur, they had their own
rituals which they inherited from their pagan fathers, such as Friday worship,
and facing their Khublah toward
Here we see Mohammed was obliged to give up his own rituals when they contradicted those of Oas and Khazraj. Mohammed was ready to accept their rites, such as worshipping on Friday, and circling around Safa and Marwa which Oas and Khazraj practiced during their occult Hajj to the statues of Asaf and Naelah. Many Muslims objected to these rites, knowing that they were the pagan rituals of Jahiliyah. Uns Bin Malek said:
Asem has told us, “I said to Uns Bin Malek, 'You used to hate to walk making a pilgrimage between the Safa and Marwa.' He answered, ‘Yes,’ because it was from the pagan rituals of Jahiliyah. Allah inspired Mohammed to recite a verse in the Qur’an which says, 'Safa and Marwa are from the rituals of Allah. He who makes a Hajj to the temple or the Hajj of Umra' has no sin if he encompasses around Safa and Marwa,'” quoting Surah 2:158.[xxvii]
This verse pleased Oas and Khazraj, the two tribes of
Mohammed quickly adjusted his rites to satisfy the tribes, but he did so with verses of the Qur’an so that he would remain the main channel of legislation and the maker of all the laws which were inspired by Allah.
Mohammed Incorporated the Customs and Rituals of Oas and Khazraj with the Excuse that Allah had Praised Them.
We read in the biography of Mohammed:
that Allah inspired a verse of the Qur’an which says, “Men liked to purify their bodies and themselves.” Then Mohammed called them and asked, “What is this purification that Allah made a compliment to you because of it?” They said, “O prophet of Allah, none of us, neither women or men, evacuate the bowels or defecate without a thorough cleaning.” Mohammed answered, “This was it.”[xxviii]
Mohammed noticed that the two tribes had special customs, such as thorough cleaning with water, or with stones from the fields, after defecation. So he asked them about the details of these customs. Then he ordered them to do this as part of the Islamic law.
This reveals to us that Mohammed wanted to copy the customs of the two tribes, but in a way that made it look as though Allah had ordered him to do so. Mohammed wanted the tribes to continue their customs, but under the pretext that Allah liked the customs and commended them. Then Mohammed imposed the customs of the two tribes upon all Muslims. We read in the biography of Mohammed: “It was characteristic of the prophet of Allah to make a law for his nation that they clean themselves with stones after relieving themselves.”[xxix] However, civilized people, such as the Byzantines at the time of Mohammed, used to clean themselves with more hygienic material than stones of the desert. Stones are contaminated with germs and worms that easily enter the body through this primitive method of cleaning.
When Mohammed entered
Mohammed was accepted as the leader by Oas and
Khazraj without any analysis of his doctrine. In fact, the two tribes held
nothing in common except for the rallying cry to eat up the nearby towns and
enjoy their women. There was nothing that Mohammed could stress when he entered
the city except the old program he had presented to the two tribes. Had he come
with thoughts of piety and religion, no one would have received him. His donkey
would have continued to wander in the town with Abu Baker, his assistant. No
one would have been excited at the sayings of the one who rode the donkey. The
same thing happened in
When Mohammed changed his language from what appeared to be religious to what now consisted of “eating up the villages,” he was followed by a group at Mecca which was looking for these degrading experiences, and who were envious of the people of Mecca and covetous of their riches. These groups found Mohammed to be the one who played to their aspirations with a loud and daring voice under the excuse of forming a new religion.
not any recitation would fit the occasion when he entered
Offering sex as a Bribe to Oas and Khazraj was Openly and Publicly Promoted by Mohammed
Mohammed’s first campaign was to enlist a tribe to which he
had not previously presented his claim to see if they would accept or refuse
it. When he moved into their settlements he found women in the camp. He took
the women and returned to
Where did all this
happen? Thaniat al-Wada'a was located in the suburbs of
When the companions of Mohammed returned to Thaniat al-Wada'a from Khaybar, they called the females with whom they enjoyed free sex in Khaybar.[xxxiii]
Al-Wada'a was a place set aside for sex with the women stolen in their campaigns with Mohammed. We see that Mohammed encouraged immorality on a large scale, to the extent that the females of an entire city were dragged there for sexual gratification. I ask the question, “Throughout history, which of the world's religions, other than the religion of Mohammed, were founded on sexual pleasure?” This is a unique characteristic of Mohammad's religion among the known religions of the world. Anthropologists tell us this kind of public behavior of free sex and orgies is something common among the occult sects which openly worshipped the devil. Our Muslim friends need to know that the God of the Bible is a holy God who abhors sin and immorality. The licentiousness and immorality on which Mohammed founded and established his religion places his religious teachings on the same level as the occult groups which adopted these practices for their abnormal and perverted adherences.
Truth cannot be found within the life and teachings of a man who founded his religion on such abominations. Nor can we imagine that such a person could have had any relationship with a holy God. Nor can anyone improve upon a religion which was founded on these practices. The only way our Muslim friends can avoid eternal damnation is to come out of this system and return to the holy God who was expressed in Jesus Christ. His true essence and character is seen through His perfect holiness, conduct and teaching.
Mohammed planted hatred in the hearts of his followers in preparation to conduct Jihad, or holy war, against all those who were not Muslims, even members of their own families.
After emigrating to
Mohammed undermined family relationships, and ordered his followers not to show kindness toward the members of their families who were not Muslims. He says in the Qur’an, Surah al-Mujadilah 58:22:
You will not find those who believe in Allah and the last day to love and be kind with those who ignore Allah and his prophet, even though they are their fathers, their sons, their brothers, or members of their tribe.
In Surah 9, called Tawbah, verses 23 and 24, Mohammed says:
You who believe, do not give consideration to your fathers and brothers, if they preferred to be infidels rather than embrace faith. The one who relates to them will be unjust. If you favor your father, your son, your brother, your wife or your kindred, or if the wealth you gained, the commerce you are afraid to lose and the houses you enjoy, are dearer to you than Allah, his prophet and the Jihad for him, then wait until Allah brings about his decision and order.
Through these verses Mohammed laid a foundation for his followers
to be hostile toward the members and relatives of their own families and the
society in which they lived. He did so in order to prepare the ground for his
followers to make Jihad against family members and kindred who remained in
You who believe, fight those who are related to you among the infidels, and let them find in you hostility and harshness.
The Arabic word for the phrase “related to you” in this verse is “Yalunakum.” According to the Islamic expositors of the Qur’an, it means “those in your family who are close to you, such as fathers, sons, brothers and cousins.” Al-Sabuni, a modern Saudi expositor of the Qur’an, commenting on this verse, says:
They had to start fighting those who were the closest family members until they reached the ones who were more distant in their relationship.[xxxv]
After Mohammed (in verses 23 - 24 of Surah 9) prohibited displaying kindness to fathers and other family members, he did something even worse. In verse 123 we read that Mohammed authorized the slaughtering of fathers and other family members, under the excuse that they were infidels who refused to become Muslims.
Fathers are killed by Their Muslim Sons who, in Turn, are Forbidden to Regret or Show Sadness
After Mohammed prepared his followers to show hate and hostility
toward members of their families, and
to fight them, and then he led his followers in expressing a
diabolic hatred unprecedented in human history. Mohammed led his followers to
attack the caravans of
But when Mohammed saw that
many of the people of
Not only did Mohammed promote the slaughter of fathers by their own sons, but he prohibited the sons to show any regret for killing their fathers. He would not allow the sons to show any sadness after the killings. Abi Hatheifah ابي حذيفة killed his father in battle. Afterward, Mohammed began disposing of the dead bodies by throwing them into a large well. Abi Hatheifah saw the dead body of his father whom he had killed as it was thrown in the well. When Mohammed noticed the expression on Abi Hatheifah’s face, Mohammed said to him, “It seems you still have some feeling toward your father?” Abi Hatheifah understood that if he showed any sympathy or regret at his father's death, this might bring the wrath of Mohammed on him. So he said, “I don’t mourn for my father. But in the name of Allah, I knew my father to be a man with a good mind, showing clemency and favor. I desired that he should become Muslim.” Today, I ask my Muslim friends, “Is it right for a son to kill his father?” His son who murdered him attested to the good qualities of his father. Were not those qualities befitting a man with a good mind, clemency and favor? Did not these qualities place him above those who killed him, including his son and the mastermind who planned these atrocities? Never before has history recorded atrocities like this !
Many people who disagreed with Mohammed were betrayed and killed by their close Muslim friends and relatives.
When anyone disagreed with Mohammed, he deceived him and then killed him. Often Mohammed sent a Muslim who was a relative of the victim to do the job, sening the would-be killer at night while the victim was sleeping at home. Mohammed knew the intended victim would open his house to a relative. For example, because Kaab Bin al-Ashraf occasionally criticized Mohammed, Mohammed sent two men at night to kill him. One of them was Mohammed Bin Muslima who was a close friend of Kaab, and the other was Abu Naelah who was a brother of Kaab. Both brothers were wet-nursed by the same woman. Arabians consider unrelated brothers suckled by the same woman as real brothers.
Both Mohammed Bin Muslima and Abu Naelah came to Kaab asking for him. Al-Bukhari, Mohammed’s biographer, said:
Kaab called them to enter his well-fortified yard. The wife of Kaab said to him, “Where you are going at this hour of the night?” He said, “It’s for the sake of Mohammed Bin Muslima and my brother Abu Naelah.” Then one of the brothers said, “When I draw near to him to kiss his head you kill him.” So they killed him and reported this to the apostle of Allah.[xxxvi]
On many occasions Mohammed sent Muslims to decapitate poets and intellectuals who criticized Islam or disagreed with him. Mohammed’s custom was to have them killed at night and have their heads brought to him. He usually selected friends or relatives of the victims whom they allowed to enter their homes at night, assuming they would not harm them.
The followers of Mohammed were taught to deny their friendships
with infidels. Another example is Abdel Rahman Bin 'Auf عبد
الرحمن بن عوف. He had a close friend, Umayya Bin Khalef. When Muslims began
killing those of
Teaching Love and Forgiveness Comes From the True God, not From Mohammed who Taught Hatred and Betrayal
Killing fathers and brothers, and betraying friendships as taught by the Qur’an and instructed by Mohammed, stands in stark contrast to the teaching of the New Testament. Jesus said in Matthew 5:43 – 44:
You have heard that it hath been said, “Thou shalt love your neighbor, and hate your enemy.” But I say unto you, “Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you.”
In Luke 6:28, we read, “Bless them that curse you, and pray for them which despitefully use you.” The teaching of the New Testament expresses the character of the loving God who wants humanity to live in harmony and peace by loving each other and forgiving each other. Yet, we read the Qur’an and can’t help but notice Mohammed's example, sowing hatred in families and among close relatives. Readers are encouraged to kill fathers and other family members just for being infidels. We find atrocities committed by the enemy of humanity, the Devil, of whom Jesus said in John 8:44, “He was a murderer from the beginning.” He has schemed to kill and incite people to commit heinous crimes since the beginning of the creation of man.
THE NEWBORN OF THE JINN RELIGION OF
Negative Spiritual Forces Stand Behind the Atrocities of Mohammed and his Followers
Betraying friends and relatives in their own homes by Muslim relatives whom Mohammed commissioned is beyond reason. Recruiting a Muslim son to kill his own father is something so horrible which only hell can scheme and promote. What led to this kind of behavior? Studying the rise of Islam confirms that behind Mohammed were the forces of the Arabian Jinn religion.
The Jinn-devils of
Another thing that reveals the relationship of Mohammed to
the Kuhhan is that Mohammed
continued to consult the Kuhhan and the Jinn religion of
The Jinn Religion of
At the time of Mohammed, many Kuhhan of the Jinn religion of
We find these Kuhhan who claimed to be prophets endeavored to
support each other. Mohammed, after consulting Saf Bin Sayyad, asked if he
believed that Mohammed was a prophet, and Saf answered “yes.” Then Saf Bin
Sayyad asked Mohammed if he believed that he, Saf bin Sayyad, was a prophet of
Allah. Mohammed answered, "I believe in Allah and his prophets," an
answer that does not exclude the faith of Mohammed in Saf Bin Sayyad as another
prophet of Allah. [xliii] Umar
Bin al-Khattab, who later became second Caliph in Islam, asked Mohammed to allow him to hit the neck
of Saf Bin Sayyad because he claimed to be prophet of Allah like Mohammed, but
Mohammed answered Umar, “If he is a prophet of Allah, you can't have authority
over him,” showing
that Mohammed respected Saf Bin Sayyad. He believed in the probability that Saf
Bin Sayyad was a prophet of Allah, and warned Umar not to hurt him. This also
reveals that Mohammed, at the beginning of his claim to be a prophet, believed
in the kind of monotheism practiced by the Saf Bin Sayyad with which the Jinn
The Kuhhan Upheld Mohammed and Promoted Islam
The Islamic books which narrated the life of Mohammed confessed: “Some of Kuhhan of Arabia had an important influence and role in preparing their tribes to embrace Islam.”[xliv] Among the famous Kuhhan who supported Mohammed was the Kahen of the Jinn-devils named Khater Bin Malek. He was the most famous Kuhhan in the tribe of Beni Lahib.[xlv] Another dangerous Kahen of the devils who promoted the claims of Mohammed was Satih.[xlvi] Al-Halabieh says: “Satih was as one of the chiefs of the Kuhhan, who was a man of great knowledge about occultism and the priesthood of the Jinn.”[xlvii]
Among the Kuhhan who backed Mohammed was Swad Bin Khareb al-Dusi, a famous Kahen of Arabia. He had a devil who appeared to him, and he was famous in augury, or foretelling the future, through his devil. The Arabian custom was to test the devil of the Kahen before consulting him. Every time his devil was tested he was presented with a riddle, like a secret word, and then he asked the Kahen to guess the word through his devil. Swad would immediately guess the word.[xlviii] We can easily see the Kuhhan, through their devils, were agents who promoted the claims of Mohammed.[xlix]
After Mohammed emigrated
The Jinn Religion of Arabia Unifies its Efforts Behind Mohammed’s Islam, Which was the Newborn Occult Religion of Arabia
In the past, the religion of Jinn of Arabia named many of its
Kuhhan to become prophets of Allah. But with Mohammed’s military campaigns to
convert Arabian tribes to Islam, the religion of the Jinn changed its strategy,
unifying all its efforts and activities under Mohammed. This can be
demonstrated by many incidents. For example, early Islamic literature refers to
a famous Kahen, Khanafer Bin al-Taua'm al-Humeiri خنافر بن
was the chief of his people, very rich, and bodily strong. Delegations from
The Jinn religion played a
fundamental part in supporting Mohammed, including support through its poets
who received their poems from the Jinn-devils. The Jinn inspired people through
their poems. Early Arabian narrators said inspiration came through special
encounters between people and Jinn.[lii] The capacity of the Jinn to inspire rhymed
prose and poetry was indisputable in
Arabs have fifteen kinds of rhymes used in
their poetry. The Jinn had thousands of rhymes which Arabs at the time of
Mohammed were unable to imitate.[liv] Therefore, Arabians considered the prose and poems which
the Jinn inspired to be miraculous acts that humans were unable to imitate.
Kuhhan, who claimed to be prophets in
Some of the Arabian poets up to, and including, the time of Mohammed give us the names of the devils who inspired the poetry. The poet al-'Aasha said the name of the devil who inspired him was “Musahhal” مسحل, and al-'Aasha often praised his devil in his poems.[lv]
Hassan Bin Thabet, Mohammed’s poet and his closest companion, used to praise Mohammed through his poems and defend him. Hassan confessed that a devil inspired his poems. He said his devil was from “Beni Shasban,” one of the chiefs of devils.[lvi] It seems that “Beni Shasban” was the name of a legion of devils responsible for the religion of Jinn of Arabia. Many of the Islamic poets sought help from devils to inspire their poems. Among them was the famous Islamic poet, Jarir, who said his devil was “Iblis of the devils.”[lvii] Iblis, in Arabic, means Satan. So we see that devils openly supported the claims of Mohammed.
things and other proofs confirm that the religion created by Mohammed was born
from the religion of the Jinn in
these facts prove that the Jinn religion of
Evaluation by the Human Conscience
Mohammed's assistants, who committed
many crimes including the decapitation of innocent people, became heroes in
Islam. Some of them killed their fathers, such as Abu Ubeideh Bin
al-Jarrah who was honored by Mohammed as an important leader. Mohammed called
him “Amin al-Ummeh,” which means “the
faithful of the nation,” and Mohammed entrusted him to lead many of his
expeditions. Abu Ubeideh Bin al-Jarrah was also entrusted by the Caliphs, Abu
Baker and Umar, to lead the Islamic army in
But the inevitable question remains: “Is the radical Islamic militia today, and its violence against innocent people, any better than the violence created in Mohammed’s time when his followers killed their fathers as infidels and decapitated their relatives?” Or, are they any better than those who followed the command of Mohammed to cut off the heads of their relatives after entering their homes as friends betraying them. How different are today’s terrorists who beheaded one person or more than Mohammed who ordered trenches to be dug and beheaded the heads of the tribe of Beni Kharithah from age ten years and over, and buried their bodies?
Mohammed set an example for today’s Muslim. He wrote verses in the Qur’an that encouraged Jihad, or holy war, against infidels who do not follow Islam. His hatred in the Qur’an is the motivator for radical militias, and the justification for the violence they create. What they teach and practice takes the lives of many innocent people in many parts of the world today.
Many non-Muslims today are asking how militant Islamic groups can blow themselves up as suicide bombers. How can they pledge themselves to suicidal operations? Today’s violence is nothing new. Mohammed insisted that his followers shake hands with him to pledge what he called the “pledge of death,” meaning that they entered battle as a suicide pact with the intention to die in a jihad. Ibn al-Akwa’, a companion of Mohammed, confirmed that when Muslims pledged to Mohammed in a pledge called “the pledge of Radwan” in a place near Mecca called al-Hudiebeh, they “pledged to death,” meaning that they pledged to enter the battle to die. Then Mohammed wrote a verse in Surah 48, verse 9, claiming that “Those who pledge to you, also pledge to Allah.” Al Sabuni says this verse came when Mohammed pledged death in Al Hudiebeh.[lx] What the radical Islamic militia is doing today is only an imitation of what Mohammed practiced and proclaimed.
Islam is based on historically false claims
growing from pagan and occult worship of
radicals today base their military strategy on the old plans of the Jinn
religion of Arabia, which they used to conquer Arabia and the
The teaching of the Bible is not the violence encouraged by Islam, but peace which Christ's teaching and example create in the heart of all who accept Him and His teaching. His truth creates love for one’s enemies and forgiveness for all. Instead of hatred and killing innocent people, Christ died to change the hearts of men and women. He is worthy of consideration by every Muslim.
[i] Bukhari, 3, 183
[ii] Al-Masudi, II, page 182; Al-Asbahani, Al Aghani, 3, page 73
[iii] Halabieh 2; page 130
[iv] Halabieh 2, page 65
[v] Bukhari 3: pages 179, 180, 183
[vi] Bukhari, 4; page 158
[vii] Halabieh 2, page 158
[viii] Halabieh 2, pages 59-61
[ix] Al-Jaheth, al- Haiwan, 6: 190; quoted by Jawad Ali, al-Mufassal, vi, 709
[x] Al- Shebli, Ahkam al- Jinn, page 114
[xi] Tarikh al-Tabari I, pages 56 and 61
[xii] Halabieh 2, page 65
[xiii] Halabieh 2, page 158
[xiv] Halabieh 2, page 159
[xv] Ibn Hisham 2, page 53 ; Halabieh 2, page 159
[xvi] Ibn Hisham 2, page 54; Halabieh 2, page 159
[xvii] Halabieh 2, page 162
[xviii] Ibn Hisham 2, page 73
[xix] Halabieh 2, page 163
[xx] Halabieh 2, page 162
[xxi] Ibn Hisham 2, page 59; Halabieh 2, page 170
[xxii] Ibn Hisham 2, page 60; Halabieh 2, page 171
[xxiii] Halabieh 2, pages 168 and 169
[xxiv] Halabieh 2, page 169
[xxv] Ibn Hisham 2, page 58
[xxvi] Ibn Hisham 2, pages 60 –61; Halabieh 2, page 172
[xxvii] Bukhari, 2, page 171
[xxviii] Halabieh 2, page 238
[xxix] Halabieh 2, page 239
[xxx] Halabieh 2, page 240
[xxxi] Ibn Darid, Al-Ishtiqaq, 88 and 89
[xxxii] Bukhari 3, page 122 ; Halabieh 1, page 590 ;2, page 588; Sahih Muslim 10, page 10
[xxxiii] Halabieh 2, page 235
[xxxiv] Al-Sabuni, Safwat al-Tafasir, third edition(1981), 2, page 469; depending on verses of the Qur’an
[xxxv] Al Sabuni 1, page 568
[xxxvi] Bukhari 5, page 26
[xxxvii] Halabieh 2, page 229
[xxxviii] Halabieh 2, page 229
[xxxix] Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:113,114, 215 ; al-Raud al-anf 1, page 137
[xl] Al-Bukhari 7, pages 113,114; al-Raud al-anf, 1, page 137 ; Introduction to Ibn Khaldun 1, page 95
[xli] Al-Bukhari 7, pages 113,114; Zad al- Muslim 2, page 104
[xlii] al-Raud al-anf, 1, page 135
[xliii] Sahih al-Bukhari, 7, pages 113,215
[xliv] Al Raud al-anf 1, page 137 ; Al-Nuwayri, Nihayat al-arab fi funun al-adab, 3; page 124 ; Tashkibri Zadeh, Miftah Al Saadeh 1, page 113; Subuh Al Aasha 1, page 398
[xlv] Halabieh 1, page 139
[xlvi] Al Raud Al-anf 1, page 18
[xlvii] Halabieh I, page122
[xlviii] Al Raud al-anf 1, page 139 ; Nuzhat al-Jalis 1, page 177
[xlix] Ibn Hisham 1, page 166
[l] Ibn Darid, Al-Ishtiqaq, page 279; Ibn Hajar, al-Isaabah 2, page 526
[li] Ibn Hajar, al-Isaabah 1, page 456 ; Taj Al Arus 3, page 192; Al- Amali , written by Al Khali 1, page 134
[lii] Alusi al-Baghdadi Mamud Shukri, Bulugh al-arab fi ma'rifat ahwal al-arab, 2, page 350
[liii] Bint al-Shatea', Risalat al-Ghufran, page 291
[liv] Bint Al Shatea’, Risalt Al Ghufran, page 291
[lv] Al-Jaheth, al- Haiwan 6, page 225 ; quoted by Jawad Ali, al-Mufassal, VI, 734
[lvi] Al-Tha'alibi Ahmad al-Malik ibn Muhammed, Kitab Thimar al-Qulub, pages 55, 69
[lvii] Al-Tha'alibi Ahmad al-Malik ibn Muhammed, Kitab Thimar al-Qulub, page 69
[lviii] Ibn Hisham 1, pages 189, 218
[lix] Taj al-Arus, 6, pages 197, 287; Ibn Darid, Al-Ishtiqaq, pages 88 and 89
[lx] Al-Sabuni, Safwat al-Tafasir,3, page 220
Copyright ă 2004 by Dr. Rafat Amari. All rights reserved.