By. Dr. Rafat Amari
The Kaabah of
Islam is a form of the Arabian Star Family worship of Mohammed’s time. The veil which tries to hide this reality falls when we study the roots of the Islamic religion.
Ibn Abbas, the cousin of Mohammed, and one
of the reporters of the tradition of Mohammed, called Hadith, speaks of two
pilgrimages of the Quraish tribe. One of the journeys was to the city of
At Taif there was also a temple called
Kaabah of Ellat, or Kaabah of the Sun.
This Kaabah was more significant and much older than the Kaabah of
Mecca. All Arabs, including the tribe of
Quraish from which Mohammed came, venerated this Kaabah. The Kaabah of Taif was
identical to the Kaabah of Mecca, and it had the same religious functions. Like
the Kaabah at
In Hijaz, the region of western and central
western Arabia where
The tribe of Quraish, in particular,
worshipped Ellat, the Sun. They had an idol dedicated to Ellat in a place
called Nekhlah, which was part of a larger area called Suk Ukkath (or Ukkaz),
or the market or fair of Ukkath.[v] Ukkath is a place
where many came, not just to trade, but also to conduct a Hajj, or
pilgrimage. Since Ukkath housed the
idol Ellat, and Ukkath was close to
All this suggests that there were connections between some of the Kaabahs of Hijaz, even though they were built by Yemeni tribes and leaders at various times in history. We assume the Kaabah of Taif was the leading Kaabah of the ones dedicated to the worship of Ellat, the sun. This could explain why the Quraish neglected the Kaabah of Mecca and participated in an annual religious trip with other worshippers of Ellat to the main Kaabah at Taif. Members of Arabian Star Family Worship were venerated in all the Kaabahs, such as Allah and his daughters, al-'Uzza and Manat. But it seems each Kaabah had a particular emphasis on the worship of one of the members of the Arabian Star Family.
As in the Kaabah of Mecca, the Kaabbah of Taif had a large Black Stone around which the people circled.[vii] The stone was the main element in Arabian Star Family Worship.
The Kaabah of
The tribe of Quraish continued
to make two religious trips, or pilgrimages.
One was to the northern Kaabah, which I discussed before, and the other
was to the Kaabah of Taif. When Mohammed occupied
For the covenants by the Quraish, their covenant journeys by winter and summer, let them adore the lord of this house.
clear that the tribe of Quraish was to have two religious journeys, one in
winter and one in summer. We understand from old Islamic resources that the
journey of Quraish in summer was to
Taif.[viii] But the Qur’an
prohibited Mohammed’s followers from worshipping other lords in other Kaabahs.
Worshippers were to express their adoration only in the Kaabbah of Mecca. All
this demonstrates that, among the Kaabahs
dedicated to Star Family Worship in
Even the tribe of Quraish considered the
Kaabah of Mecca as irrelevant. They preferred to go to Ukkath to worship Ellat,
the sun, rather than restricting their worship to the Kaabah at
The Kaabah at
Not only did the tribe of Quraish fail to hold the Kaabah
Hubol was a shrine of the Kaabah representing the moon. Hubol was called "Allah" before Venus took the title of "Allah" from the moon.
worshipped an idol belonging to another tribe, the tribe of Kinaneh. The idol
was called “a companion or friend of
Kinaneh.” Kinaneh then worshipped an idol called “companion of Quraish.”[x] This deity was
Hubol. Hubol was worshipped as the main shrine in the Kaabah at
Scholars agree that Hubol, as the god of
the moon, was the god of the Kaabah. For a certain period, he was also “Allah”
for the inhabitants of
[i] Ibn Abbas in Tabari, Jami’, xxx, 171. cited by Patricia Crone, Meccan Trade, Princeton University Press, 1987, page, 205
[ii] Ibn al-Kathir 4:253 quoted by Jawad Ali, vi, 228
[iii] Jawad Ali, vi, 228
[v] Tafsir al-Tabari 27; page 35; Al-Allusi, Ruh' al-Maani 27:47
[vi] Al-Allusi, Ruh' al-Maani 27: 47 ; Al-Khazen 4: 194, quoted by Jawad Ali vi, page 232
[vii] Yaqut al-Hamawi, Mujam al-Buldan 7, page 310; Taj al-Aruss 1, page 580; Tafsir al-Beithawi 1:199 ; al-Kalbi, al-Asnam, Dar al-Kutub al-Masriyah, Cairo-Egypt, 1925; Al-Lusi, Ruh' al-Maani, 27, page 47; Azruqi, Akhbar Mecca, 79
[viii] Crone cited Ibn Abbas in Tabari, Jami’, xxx, 171; Patricia Crone, Meccan Trade, Princeton University Press, 1987, page 205
[ix]Tarikh al-Tabari, I, page 441
[x]Ibn Habib, al-Mahbar, page 318
[xi] Jawad Ali,vi, 328; Rino' Disu, al-Arab Fi Suryia Khabel al-Islam, page 116
al-Fadl ibn al-Hasan, Majma' al-Bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an, (
[xiii] Wellhausen, Reste
Copyright ã 2004 by Dr. Rafat Amari. All rights reserved.